Tularemia (Francisella tularensis)
Tularemia is caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis which naturally infects animals, especially rodents, rabbits, and hares. People become infected by the bite of an arthropod (most commonly ticks and deerflies) that has fed on an infected animal, or by being bitten by an infected animal, handling infected animal carcasses, eating or drinking contaminated food or water, or by inhaling infected aerosols in a laboratory setting. The use of F. tularensis as a weapon of bioterrorism is of concern because it is highly infectious. As few as 10 to 50 organisms can cause disease.
Resources for the general public
Resources for health care providers
Purpose of surveillance:
- To identify and eliminate sources of transmission including contaminated food and water
- To identify cases caused by potential agents of bioterrorism
One case of glandular tularemia was reported to Public Health in 2012. The case was an adult with cervical lymph node swelling and lymphadenopathy after outdoor activities in Washington state outside King County. The case was not hospitalized.
No cases of tularemia were reported to Public Health in 2011. In 2010 an adult was diagnosed with tularemia after developing an ulcer after outdoor activities in King County. In 2009 an adolescent was diagnosed after sustaining a wound from his pet falcon's talons. Neither case was hospitalized. Both cases were culture confirmed. Prior to 2009, the last case of tularemia in King County was reported in 2005 in a person who may have been infected from an arthropod bite while camping outside of King County.
Approximately 200 human cases of tularemia are reported annually in the US, mostly in persons living in the south-central and western states. Each year in Washington state there are two to eight cases reported. Identified exposures include farming and rabbit skinning.