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Engineering1919-Image_1-cropped

An online exhibit by the King County Archives, November, 2014. Special thanks to our hard-working interns and volunteers, Jacqueline McCauley for research, writing, scanning, and design; and Mason Thaut and Jesse Stanley for scanning and html editing.

 


THE INTER-COUNTY RIVER IMPROVEMENT COMMISSION AND THE WHITE RIVER, 1913-1948

Introduction

The Inter-County River Improvement Commission was established in 1913 by King and Pierce counties to jointly manage flood control along the White, Stuck and lower Puyallup rivers at the counties’ common border. At the time, the White River, which originates in Mount Rainier's glacial melt, flowed northwest to join the Duwamish River and discharge into Seattle's Elliott Bay. The Stuck River was an offshoot (a distributary) of the White River that ran westward closely parallel to the White, turning southward into Pierce County, merging with the Puyallup River at Sumner and flowing into Tacoma’s Commencement Bay. The work directed by the Inter-County River Improvement Commission would change this landscape, affecting the area's natural resources and influencing its development through the 20th Century.
Engineering_1919-Image_2
(Exhibit banner image: portion of map of improvement area around Puyallup and Sumner. Above: map identifying improvements in the same area. Both from 1919 Engineer's monthly reports.) Click for larger image.

A History of Flooding

In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, residents and businesses along the rivers had suffered repeated property damage and loss from flooding. The primary cause was sediment buildup in the White River. Newspapers of the 1890's describe one early type of flood control: citizens dynamiting the river banks to divert floodwaters from their property across the County line. The practice was not officially condoned.  In 1902, the King County Auditor investigated and confirmed that no King County  powder had been used in directing floodwaters toward Pierce County (report below).
271-4-39_--_1902_Auditor_report_of_no_KC_powder_use_on_Stuck
 1902 Auditor report finding no use of explosives by King County government on the Stuck River between the years 1888 and 1902. Series 1735. Click on link to view report.
Chittenden_Bio

Representatives of King and Pierce counties did make some efforts to address the issue cooperatively, but it wasn't until 1906, when flooding along the White and Puyallup rivers caused over one million dollars in damage, that public agencies took action. The flood had washed away several railway bridges, destroyed farmland, and disrupted logging operations, and, most significantly, it had diverted the waters of the White River into the bed of the Stuck, creating an opportunity to permanently reengineer the river flows. 

A commission headed by Major Hiram M. Chittenden of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers was charged with surveying the watersheds and recommending a solution to flooding in the Puyallup and White-Duwamish valleys. The resulting 1907 report (The Duwamish-Puyallup Flood Problem) recommended (1) that engineers retain the route of the 1906 southerly diversion of the White River and (2) that a formalized joint flood control effort be established between King and Pierce counties. At the time, there was no legal mechanism by which two counties in Washington State could contract with one another. Then, in 1913 the Washington State Legislature enacted new legislation (“Flood Control by Counties Jointly,” RCW 86.13), which permitted interlocal agreements under which counties could cooperate on and jointly fund flood control projects on shared rivers.

The next year, King and Pierce county commissioners signed a ninety-nine year agreement pledging cooperation to control flooding along an approximately nineteen-mile stretch of the White and Puyallup rivers, running from the Muckleshoot Indian Reservation, through Auburn to Algona-Pacific, and into Pierce County. The agreement created the Inter-County River Improvement Commission (ICRIC) headed by the Joint Board of Commissioners, consisting of the county commissioners of King and Pierce counties and a seventh, independent commissioner.

ICRICoriginalagreement

Cover of 1914 agreement between King and Pierce Counties.  Click on image to view agreement text in PDF format.

Auburn Dam October 24 1921
(Above: "Group from Auburn Inspecting Diversion Dam and Channel Change, Oct. 24, 1921." 1922 Annual Report (Box 6, Folder 4). Series 1735.)


The first significant projects of the ICRI were the Auburn Dam, which permanently diverted the White River into the Stuck River channel, and a debris barrier along the Muckleshoot Reservation.  Other early efforts focused on dredging and river bank erosion control.

Flooding in 1933 destroyed or damaged much of the work done by the ICRIC, and in the midst of the Great Depression, the ICRIC did not have the means to make effective repairs. The Joint Board of Commissioners petitioned the federal government for aid and began a partnership with the Works Progress Administration (WPA)/Flood Relief Program.

 EngineeringMayJune1939pg1Image1
(Above: "Auburn Section White River August 1938." R. H. Thomson inspecting a revetment. Engineering monthly report, May-June 1939 (Box 5, Folder 10). Series 1735.)
ThomsonBio
WPA support initiated a new era of intensive building projects. R. H. Thomson served the ICRIC during this period as a consulting engineer. Thomson also led the ICRIC's campaign for construction of the Mud Mountain Dam on the White River, which, despite setbacks and delays, was completed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 1948. The dam is currently the principal flood control structure on the White River.

With the nation's resources directed toward supporting World War II, both funds and interest for the work of the ICRIC decreased.  King County attempted to terminate the 1914 agreement early by withholding its portion of the required funds. Pierce County then brought suit against King County in 1943, and in1947 the Washington State Supreme Court ruled in favor of Pierce County.  However, the ICRIC still suffered from a lack of funds, and most of the work done in the late 1940's was limited to aiding in the construction of the Mud Mountain Dam.

Over time, most of the functions of the ICRIC were taken over by other county, state and federal agencies in the respective counties, although the ICRIC continued its maintenance of existing flood control structures along the White River. 




The ICRIC's Legacy

The ICRIC had focused exclusively on flood control.  The techniques employed — straightening river channels, debris removal, construction of hydraulic structures, and dredging — compromised the spawning habitat of salmon and trout that the river supported.  But environmental impacts were only addressed by fisheries’ stakeholders and public agencies in the latter part of the twentieth century. 

By controlling the White River, the work of the ICRIC in turn permitted development of the valley, first as farmland and into what is now mostly residential and commercial use. The subsequent population growth had additional impacts on the White River watershed.  Pollution is one result of a growing population, and increased use of the land makes policy and engineering changes more difficult to implement. 

Flood control and fisheries enhancement continue today with the participation of a wide range of stakeholders under the state’s Water Resources Inventory Area (WRIA) program and other cooperative structures.  New scientific knowledge and new perspectives have resulted in a new generation of river improvements. Today, King County's Water and Land Resources Division oversees flood management and salmon habitat restoration. The goal of its Lower White River Countyline Reach projects is "to reconnect more than 120 acres of floodplain to the White River channel" to address recent flooding while restoring "riverine processes and functions to the lower White River and its floodplain in order to enhance salmonid rearing habitat, in particular for spring and fall Chinook, coho, and steelhead." 


 

River Sections

When the Inter-County River Improvement Commission began its work in 1914, engineers divided the length of the White-Puyallup river system under their jurisdiction into eight working sections.  Three of the sections were in King County (Muckleshoot, Auburn and County Line) and five (Dieringer, Roesli, Puyallup, Murphy, and Reservation) were in Pierce County.

This exhibit highlights the King County sections; however, Commission text records and photographs for all sections are present in the holdings of the King County Archives.  King County's partner, Pierce County, has custody of records and photographs from the same series documenting Pierce County's participation in the ICRIC.



Muckleshoot Section

AnRep1922pg1Image1 

Above: photo from 1922 ICRIC annual report.)

The Muckleshoot river section lay the farthest upstream. Debris and gravel, carried by glacial meltwater, washed downstream and contributed to flooding in the lower rivers. In 1915, the ICRIC constructed a drift barrier in the Muckleshoot Section by placing across the river a line of 330-ton, pyramid-shaped rocks connected by rows of two inch cables. Logs and other debris caught in the barrier would be hauled out of the river, piled up, and burned. Levees were also constructed in this section. These efforts had some effect on flood control. However, the White River also served as a spawning habitat for chinook, pink, chum, and coho salmon, and rainbow, steelhead, and cutthroat trout. The work of the ICRIC had an adverse impact on the White River watershed’s ability to support wild salmon. The hydraulic techniques employed by the ICRIC --channelization, removal of large woody debris-- contributed to a loss of usable spawning grounds, making it difficult for the salmon population to thrive. They also cut off access to side streams and marshes that had served as additional spawning sites.


The Inter-County River Improvement Commission was charged with improving flood control in the lower river system.  The ICRIC records do not show that maintenance of fish stocks was a concern at this time.

AnRep1922pg1Image2
Photo from 1922 ICRI annual report. "Jan. 17, 1921. Drift clearing with gasoline donkey engine at drift barrier."

The Muckleshoot Section of the White River traversed the Muckleshoot Indian Reservation, established by the Treaties of Medicine Creek and Point Elliott in 1854.  As a result of intense activism and litigation by western Washington tribes in the mid-twentieth century, the Muckleshoot Tribe was able to reclaim rights to White River fisheries promised by the treaties. Since the restoration of treaty rights, the Muckleshoot tribe has been a stakeholder in the management of the lower White and Puyallup river systems and the fisheries they support. This has at times set the tribe in opposition to flood control efforts in the Muckleshoot section.  In the 1970's and 1980's the tribe, citing its treaty and sovereign rights, denied ICRIC access to flood control levees that had been built in the reservation areas of the White River.  As a consequence of subsequent natural breaching of the levees, fish habitat and spawning gravels were undeniably improved.

Balancing the interests of fishing, species protection, and habitat restoration, and flood control on the White and Puyallup River systems remains a challenge.

MinutesJan1923pg8Image3
  Muckleshoot section, photo from 1923 annual report.
AnRep1932pg3Image1
Photo from 1932 annual report. "Muckleshoot section: High Gravel Cliff on Right Bank. The source of a great quantity of gravel and silt precipitated thruout the Auburn Section the past years. The pole bulkhead at base of cliff constructed during low water period of 1932.")
Drift Barrier Across upper end of old Stuck Creek Channel Muckleshoot Section 1922 Drift Barrier 1922 Stuck Creek Channel 1922 Drift Barrier on White River

AnRep1922pg6Image1    

AnRep1929pg1Image1
(Above left:  Auburn dam, 1921. Photo from 1922 annual report.  Above right: "Brush retards on right bank below Auburn Dam" from 1921 annual report.)

The Auburn Section was the focus of much of the ICRIC's work, since it was here that the 1906 flood had altered the course of the White River.

AnRep1922pg8Image2
Auburn section during December 1921 flood. From 1922 annual report.

Following recommendations of the Chittenden report, the ICRIC chose to make this change of the river's course permanent.  Immediately after the Commission’s formation in 1914, it began work on a diversion dam, referred to as the Auburn Dam or Auburn Wall.  The 1,600-foot-long concrete wall extended across the mouth of the former channel, where the White River had once turned northward. The ICRIC also built two "wing" dams, designed to prevent erosion and to straighten the channel, and a barrier above the dam to block debris that had caused damaging log jams downriver in the past.  In addition, the ICRIC built revetments and bulkheads   to protect the banks from erosion, constructed channels to straighten the river's course in Pierce County, and conducted extensive dredging to increase the river's capacity.

GameFarmPark

 The diversion wall at Auburn's Game Farm Park today. Image courtesy of King County, White River Watershed facts.

Because the White River ran alongside it, the ICRIC's engineers continually faced the problem of the river undermining the Auburn Wall’s base. And, as the river cut its new channel, it eroded away the river bed, causing the water level to fall lower and posing an increasingly serious threat to the wall base.  In 1920, the ICRIC installed concrete blocks along the base of the wall. A supporting rock groin was added  in 1945, but this structure was washed  a year later in floods.  In 1949 the ICRIC built several dikes to divert the river away from the wall. This final effort seemed to solve the problem permanently, and was one of the last major projects undertaken by the ICRIC.



County Line Section


 AnRep1922pg9Image2
"Opposite from Camp 2," from 1922 annual report.
 AnRep1931pg6Image1
"Showing destructive result of 1917 flood, in which 3600 feet of levees and revetment were eroded," from 1931 annual report.
 AnRep1925pg3Image1
"Bulkhead #4 completed and brushed, showing channel diverted from east bank," from 1925 annual report.
The County Line Section represented a challenge that the ICRIC engineers never successfully overcame. Much flatter than upstream sections of the river, the topography caused a constant buildup of silt, gravel and debris that raised the water bed, constricted the river's course, and presented a serious risk of flooding.

In 1924, the ICRIC constructed two bulkheads and two new retards and strengthened three older retards in an attempt to protect the banks from erosion that contributed to the build-up of silt and debris. Though engineering staff had thought that this effort would permanently solve the problems in County Line section, in 1939 a new system of groins and dikes had to be installed. It was designed to allow normal flow or moderate flooding to pass through the natural river channel, while diverting heavy floodwaters through the dikes, where gravel and debris would be trapped while the water was returned to the channel downstream.

AnRep1923pg3Image2
Photographs from 1923 annual report showing flooding damage in spite of ICRIC efforts. Above: "Tony Roetger's place protected with retards," November 23, 1923.
AnRep1923pg3Image1
"Tony Roetger's place showing erosion between retards due to high water of December, 1923."

Most ICRIC work in this section involved dredging. The ICRIC's steam donkey and Fordson equipment were put to constant use in this area pulling tens of thousands of cubic meters of gravel and silt from the river bed.  This technique did not prove sustainable as periodic flooding along the White River would fill in more gravel and debris.

While this brought some relief over the years, a flood in 1946 destroyed the system of dikes and brought large amounts of gravel and debris into the County Line Section. With the ICRIC already becoming less active, work on the County Line Section was mostly abandoned.

 Sediment still tends to deposit in this reach of the river, causing the river bed to rise and for the cities of Pacific and Sumner to experience recent flooding.  The primary flood risk reduction strategy for this reach is to increase the river’s capacity to accommodate flood flows and high sediment loads. Since 2008, King County’s Water and Land Resource Division has been working to acquire land and modify old levees and revetments, so the river is reconnected to its floodplain. This approach increases flood conveyance and storage, while opening up areas to accommodate sediment deposition. AnRep1931-Map_1
Map 1 from 1931 annual report.

The ICRIC also sought federal WPA assistance for a much larger project: a dam on the White River at Mud Mountain, southeast of Enumclaw.

ICRIC engineers had well understood that only a dam upriver could adequately control water levels in the lower river system.  After many surveys and studies, which included the taking of core samples at the proposed dam site, the ICRIC Joint Board of Commissioners approved the project and applied to the federal Public Works Administration in October, 1933.  Receiving no response, the Joint Board sent its chief engineer, B.P. Thomas to Washington, D.C., where he was able to persuade the US Army Corps of Engineers to review the application.

Despite support of senior Corps personnel in the Pacific Northwest, Congressional letter-writing campaigns by the King County Commissioners, and personal lobbying in Washington DC by respected engineer R. H. Thomson, the Corps initially refused to  send the application on for Congressional action: the location selected for the dam was well above the floodplain over which the ICRIC had jurisdiction.  After an ICRIC attempt to get the project added to an existing WPA contract, the Corps refused again, partly on the grounds that the ICRIC did not own the proposed site.

19-7TownshipMap_Cropped
(Above:  The White River at the location where the Mud Mountain Dam would be built, from King County Assessor's Timber Cruise Reports.  King County Archives Series 1067.)

Attempts to purchase property from the chief landholders, the Weyerhaeuser Timber Company and the White River Lumber Company, were unsuccessful and in September 1935 the Joint Board authorized Pierce and King Counties to begin condemnation proceedings. 

With Congressional approval, the ICRIC raised most of the funds for dam construction and would later transfer ownership of the site to the federal government.

1735-7-4_ICRIAnRept1933-35
(Above: Plan for Mud Mountain Dam, circa 1933.)


US_Army_Corps_of_Engineers_Bio
Construction began in 1939 under Corps oversight but was halted in 1942 because of the entry of the United States into World War II.  After the war, work began again and Mud Mountain Dam was completed in 1948.

Although it was not officially an ICRIC project, the 432-foot high Mud Mountain Dam, once the highest earth-fill dam in the world, remains the most enduring legacy of the early years of the ICRIC. 

Although now a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers site, the dam might never have come into being without persistent advocacy for its construction by the Inter-County River Improvement Commission.

As with other flood control structures on the White River, the Mud Mountain Dam has had negative impacts on the health of salmonid stocks.  The dam traps gravel, sediments and woody debris, which are then cleared, depriving the lower river of materials needed for spawning habitat.  And, because the dam blocks upstream passage, the Corps to this day employs a technique called “trap-and-haul,” using trucks to carry returning salmon around the dam each spawning season.

AerialReservoirBehindDamSpillway
Aerial-DamReservoirandSpillway
Above: 1995 Flood monitoring, showing Mud Mountain Dam and reservoir behind dam. Photos from King County Archives Series 400, Department of Transportation, Road Services Division: Photograph and moving image files.

Technology

"One of the most interesting pieces of work during the year was the construction of a shear bulkhead 680 feet long, at the confluence of the Stuck and Puyallup rivers, Item 23, in an attempt to divert the channel of the Puyallup River by pushing the confluence of the rivers down stream and prevent further encroachment on the town of Sumner. This bulkhead was driven with our Fordson equipment and beginning at the shore, brush was placed between the rows of piles, graduall [sic] crowding the channel down stream to the end of the bulkhead. Six views of this work attached hereto shows how rapidly the desired effect was accomplished, and the remarkable deposit of gravel in the old channel. Mr. Thomson and myself are very much gratified with this work as it was in a measure, very much of an experiment and the results far exceeded our highest expectations." --;- H.F. Gronen, Chief Engineer, Annual Report 1924

"Item 23. Bulkhead at confluence of Stuck and Puyallup Rivers, looking up stream, showing placing of Brush, July 23rd." (Box 6, Folder 6).

Many bulkheads such as the one in the above photograph were built by the Inter-County River Improvement Commission for bank protection by driving piles into the bank and then filling the built structure with loose brush. This approach had been a common practice before the ICRIC began its work, and several miles of bulkheads were already in place by 1914. However, despite Gronen's glowing report, later Chief Engineers mostly abandoned the use of these structures as they provided inadequate bank protection, created a fire hazard in dry weather, and generally had a short lifespan.

"The work at the Drift Barrier, Item 5, consisted in the removal, piling and burning of  many hundred cords of drift which had lodged immediately above the barrier, thereby providing an effective opening clear of drift approximately 600 feet wide, part of the  lower cables having been removed to allow some of the earlier and smaller drift to find its way through the barrier." -- H.F. Gronen, Chief Engineer, Annual Report 1923

Fordson tractors were produced by Henry Ford & Son, Inc. from 1917 to 1920, and later by the Ford Motor Company. They were the first mass-produced tractors in the world and they became the best selling tractor in the United States during this period. The logging industry used them extensively by converting them to run on rails. In the photographs "Item 5" and "Item 10" below, it is apparent that they were converted to other purposes as well. ICRIC laborers employ the engine of a Fordson tractor to power a winch (below left), while in the center photo, the same engine is being used to power a pile driver.

"Eight hundred and fifty feet of wooden pile bulkhead was driven and brushed, and between 30,000 and 40,000 yards of gravel removed from the main channel location using the large steam donkey equipt for fuel oil burning, with a 2 1/2 yard Bagley scraper, all in accordance with the general plan for channel control submitted byMr.Thomson and myself and approved by the Joint Board on July 10, 1925...This work is quite well illustrated in the series of pictures accompanying this report and we believe that sufficient progress has been made to give us a demonstration of the efficacy of the plan adopted. The large donkey is continuing to operate at the present time and will do so during the year unless prevented by high water, and we believe that with the appropriation provided quite an appreciable showing should be made toward the permanent control of this section." -- H.F. Gronen, Chief Engineer, Annual Report 1925

AnRep1923pg1Image2

"Item 5. June, 1923. Fordson, Hicks-Bull logging equipment used in river clearing. Muckleshoot section." (Box 6, Folder 5)

"Item 10. September 1923. Dieringer Section. Mellen's place Method of jetting concrete piles, Fordson logging unit converted into pile driver." (Box 6, Folder 5). 

A steam donkey, or donkey engine, was a widely used piece of logging equipment in the early 20th century. These engines were originally developed by the maritime industry for loading and unloading cargo. They became popular in both the logging and mining industries as they were adaptable and relatively easy to transport. In logging they were used to pull logs across the forest floor, a task previously performed by horses. Steam donkeys were usually mounted on wooden skids or sometimes wheels to make them easier to transport from site to site. The steam donkey employed by the ICRIC was adapted to other uses like removing gravel, as described in the passage below.

"We experienced some difficulty with the revetment job at Sumner owing the fact it was necessary for us to excavate a channel in which to lay the greater portion of the mat, but in so doing used most of the material to build up banks to a very much more uniform alignment. This mattress also had to be carried down in front of the old type 5 revetment immediately above the bridge, and the toe of revetment built up with concrete and steel. These facts, together with the increased length of the new work, over ran our estimate somewhat but this particular curve is now in excellent shape and I believe permanent. Even Mr. Thomson admits that it is the best looking job on the river." -- H.F. Gronen, Chief Engineer, Annual Report 1924

"Ditto. Steam Donkey equipt for burning fuel oil, used with 2 1/2 yd. Bagley for removal of gravel. Nov. 15, 1925." (Box 6, Folder 7).
A revetment is a man-made sloped bank which absorbs the impact of moving water, primarily to prevent erosion. Made of concrete, wood, or rock, revetments were among the most common structures built by the ICRIC by laying concrete slabs over the bank. The most challenging part of this structure was the "toe", or the exposed bottom lip of the concrete. Several methods of protection were tried, including brush mattresses, boards, and concrete blocks, but all were largely unsuccessful. The life expectancy on these revetments was consequently approximately ten years and many of them had to be periodically replaced.
"The placing of concrete to make a revement, August 1925." (Box 6, Folder 5).

Photographs

AnRep1922pg14Image1 ? AnRep1923pg2Image2
"Flood Conditions Dec. 1921 Berg's Farm." (Box 6, Folder 4) "Item 9. January 18th, 1923. County Line Section. Erosion of bank. Tony Roetger's place." (Box 6, Folder 5).

AnRep1923pg4Image1
Item 10. July 1923. "Method of placing reinforcement and core in hollow concrete piles made at Camp--2." (Box 6, Folder 5). "Item 10. July, 1923. Forms for reinforced concrete piles. Camp-2." (Box 6, Folder 5).

"Item 13. August, 1923. Just below highway bridge at Sumner before bank was protected." (Box 6, Folder 5). "Item 13. December, 1923. Same location as before after bank was protected with standard Type 4 Revetment." (Box 6, Folder 5).

Item 10. Roesli Section, above Nix bulkhead showing bulkheads driven and brushed. December, 1926." (Box 6, Folder 8). "Roesli Section. Old Type 5 revement badly undermined, above No. Puyallup Bridge, Dec. 10, 1927." (Box 6, Folder 9).

"Dieringer Section. Bulkhead; Right bank below Stewart bridge." (Box 6, Folder 10). "Auburn Section. Item 7. Brushed pile bulkheads and gravel fill on right bank below old wing wall." (Box 6. Folder 11).

"Murphy Section. Left bank at Statrion 200 looking downstream. March 26, 1930. (Box 6, Folder 12). "Remnant of bulkhead driven previous to 1914, located downstream from C.M. St. P. & P.S. R. R. Bridge. Repaired and brushed during December 1931." (Box 7, Folder 2).

"Clark's Creek Bridge over Puyallup River during construction." (Box 7, Folder 2). "Just below Clark's Creek Bridge July 1, '39 showing rock dumped on concrete and before placing into groins." (Box 5, Folder 10).

"Constructing levee. South side, Station 60." (Box 3, Folder 1). "Detail of pole retard, Station 120, North side." (Box 3, Folder 1).

"#2367 Stewart Bridge, 1/6/23." (Box 5, Folder 1).

"Douglas Fir - 25'8" circumference located on the former White River Channel Floor at a point about a quarter mile up stream from the Drift Barrier and approximately 300 feet west of the present channel. This Fir Tree is conclusive evidence of the time that has elapsed since the occurrence of floods of sufficient magnitude to destroy any standing timber in the river canyon." (Box 7, Folder 3).

"River clearing. Muckleshoot Section." (Box 3, Folder 1). "Green timber eroded causing serious diversion." (Box 7, Folder 3).

"Item 23. Bulkhead at confluence of Stuck and Puyallup Rivers, looking up stream, showing placing of Brush, July 23rd." (Box 6, Folder 6). "Item 5. June, 1923. Fordson, Hicks-Bull logging equipment used in river clearing. Muckleshoot section." (Box 6, Folder 5).

"Ditto. Steam Donkey equipt for burning fuel oil, used with 2 1/2 yd. Bagley for removal of gravel. Nov. 15, 1925." (Box 6, Folder 7).

"Item 10. September 1923. Dieringer Section. Mellen's place Method of jetting concrete piles, Fordson logging unit converted into pile driver." (Box 6, Folder 5).

"The placing of concrete to make a revetment, August 1925." (Box 6, Folder 5). "Item 14 [Curve above bridge at Sumner] showing completed type 7 revetment, Dec. 9th." (Box 6, Folder 6).

"Group from Auburn Inspecting Diversion Dam and Channel Change, Oct. 24, 1921." (Box 6, Folder 4).

"Muckleshoot section, photo from 1923 annual report." (Box 5, Folder 1). "Auburn Section White River August 1938." R. H. Thomson inspecting a revetment." (Box 5, Folder 10).

"Photo from 1922 ICRI annual report." (Box 6, Folder 2). "Muckleshoot Section, timber crib barrier to divert channel." (Box 3, Folder 1).

"Same as above after high water." (Box 3, Folder 1). "Detail of timber crib barrier." (Box 3, Folder 1).

"Muckleshoot section: High Gravel Cliff on Right Bank." (Box 7, Folder 3).

"Jan. 17, 1921. Drift clearing with gasoline donkey engine at drift barrier." (Box 6, Folder 2). "Auburn dam, 1921." (Box 6, Folder 2).

"Brush retards on right bank below Auburn Dam." (Box 6, Folder 1). "Auburn section during December 1921 flood." (Box 6, Folder 2).

"Right bank below Auburn Diversion Dam, showing erosion, November 1931." (Box 7, Folder 2). "Accumulated drift carried down out of Muckleshoot section below drift barrier." (Box 7, Folder 2).

Pile retards, adjacent to Wing Wall no. 1, being brushed November 1932." (Box 7, Folder 2). "The diversion wall at Auburn's Game Farm Park today." (Image courtesy of King County, White River Watershed facts).

"Opposite from Camp 2," (Box 6, Folder 2). "Showing destructive result of 1917 flood, in which 3570 feet of levees and revetment were eroded." (Box 7, Folder 2).

"Bulkhead #4 completed and brushed, showing channel diverted from east bank." (Box 6, Folder 5). "Tony Roetger's place protected with retards." (Box 6, Folder 5).

"Tony Roetger's place showing erosion between retards due to high water of December, 1923." (Box 6, Folder 5). "Looking up stream showing completed levee and revement, also formation of sedimentary islands." (Box 7, Folder 2).

"Same section during flood which caused destruction to lower 3570 feet." (Box 7, Folder 2).

1995 Flood monitoring, showing Mud Mountain Dam and reservoir behind dam. (Photos from King County Archives Series 400).>


Maps & Blueprints



Engineering1919-Image_1-cropped

>"Map of improvement area around Puyallup and Sumner." (Box 1, Folder 4).


Engineering_1919-Image_2

"Same as the map above but with depictions of bulkhead and revement placement." (Box 1, Folder 4).


AnRep1931-Map_1

"A Map of the proposed levee project to prevent a flood like the one in 1917." (Box 7, Folder 1).


19-7TownshipMap_Cropped

"The White River at the location where the Mud Mountain Dam would be built." (Series 1067).


1735-7-4_ICRIAnRept1933-35
"Plan for Mud Mountain Dam, circa 1933."


Mud_Mountain_Dam_Vicinity_Map
"Mud Mountain Reservoir Vicinity Map with surrounding rivers." (Box 1, Folder 12).


21-5_Township_map
A "Township map of Stuck, White, and Green River circa. 1908 before the river improvement."(Series 1067).


Proposed_Design_for_River_Revement
"Blueprint of the river revetments for the ICRIC Project." (Box 1, Folder 1).


Capacity_of_Improved_Channel
"Improved channel blueprints and their proposed specifications." (Box 1, Folder 1).


Cross_section_at_Confuence_Blueprint
"Cross section blueprint of where the Stuck and Puyallup Rivers meet." (Box 7, Folder 2).



"Cross section blueprint of the Stuck River 800' feet upstream from the N.P.R.R Bridge." (Box 7, Folder 2).


Cross_Section_Puyallup_River_Blueprint
"Cross Section of the Puyallup River at Station 10-00." (Box 7, Folder 2).

Documents

271-4-39_--_1902_Auditor_report_of_no_KC_powder_use_on_Stuck


1902 Auditor report finding no use of explosives by King County government on the Stuck River between the years 1888 and 1902. (Series 1735.)
ICRICoriginalagreement
Cover of 1914 agreement between King and Pierce Counties. Click on image to view agreement text in PDF format. (Box 1, Folder 6)

Additional Document Links

Annual Engineering Reports:




Glossary

Bulkhead

A structure built to prevent erosion, mostly commonly along coastlines. They are generally constructed using wood pilings or stone.

Dike
See 'Groyne'.

Dredging
A type of excavation conducted on the floor of bodies of water to deepen them and make them navigable. In the case of the ICRIC, this technique was utilized to increase channel capacity and reduce the risk of flooding.

Earth-fill dam
A type of embankment dam made of compacted soil or sand with an impermeable material such as clay or concrete at its core.

Fish Hatchery
A facility where fish are bred under artificial conditions, primarily for commercial or conservation purposes.

Fordson
Fordson tractors were produced by Henry Ford & Son, Inc. from 1917 to 1920, and later by the Ford Motor Company. They were the first mass- produced tractors in the world which made them extremely affordable and they became the best selling tractor in the United States during this period. They were often converted to perform various tasks.

Gradient
A measurement of the steepness of a line, calculated as the change in elevation, divided by the distance covered. Also called slope.

Groyne
A wall built to limit water flow and the movement of sediment, generally made of wood, concrete, or rock. Also called a spur dike or wing dike when used in a river. In the records of the ICRIC, the spelling used is "groin."

Levee
See 'Groyne'.

Pile
A device used in constructing the foundation of large structures, typically made of wood, reinforced concrete, or steel. They are driven into the ground and connected using a pile cap, forming a solid base upon which to built.

Retard
A structure designed to impede or slow down the progress of the water's movement.

Revetment
A revetment is a man-made sloped bank which absorbs the impact of moving water and is used primarily to prevent erosion. They can be made of concrete, wood, or rock.

Steam donkey/donkey engine
A steam donkey, or donkey engine, was a widely used piece of logging equipment in the early 20th century. These engines were originally developed in the maritime industry for loading and unloading cargo. They became popular in both the logging and mining industries as they were relatively easy to transport and adaptable. Steam donkeys were usually mounted on wooden skids or sometimes wheels to make them easier to transport from site to site.

Wing wall/dam
See 'Groyne'.

 

 


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